Fouling

 

    TYPICAL FOULING FACTORS

    COOLING WATER - Fouling Factors in [m2K/W]

    Conditions cooling water < 50 ° C
    cooled fluid < 120 ° C
    cooling water > 50 ° C
    cooled fluid > 120 ° C
    Water velocity v < 1 m/s v > 1 m/s v < 1 m/s v > 1 m/s
    Type of Water
    Sea 0.00009 0.00009 0.00018 0.00018
    Brackish 0.00035 0.00018 0.00053 0.00035
    Cooling tower with inhibitor 0.00018 0.00018 0.00035 0.00035
    Cooling tower without inhibitor 0.00053 0.00053 0.00088 0.00070
    City grid 0.00018 0.00018 0.00035 0.00035
    River mimimum 0.00018 0.00018 0.00035 0.00035
    River average 0.00053 0.00035 0.00070 0.00035
    Engine jacket 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018 0.00018
    Demineralized or distilled 0.00009 0.00009 0.00009 0.00009
    Treated Boiler Feedwater 0.00018 0.00009 0.00018 0.00018
    Boiler blowdown 0.00035 0.00035 0.00035 0.00035

     


    SEVERAL FLUIDS - Fouling Factors in [m2K/W]

    Group Fluid Fouling Factor
    Oil Gasoil 0.00009
    Transformer 0.00018
    Lubrication 0.00018
    Heat Transfer oil 0.00018
    Hydraulic 0.00018
    Gas and Vapour Hydrogen 0.00176
    Engine exhaust 0.00176
    Steam 0.00009
    Steam with oiltraces 0.00018
    Cooling fluid vapours with oil traces 0.00035
    Organic solvent vapours 0.00018
    Compressed air 0.00035
    Natural gas 0.00018
    Stable top products 0.00018
    Liquid Cooling Fluid 0.00018
    Organic heat transfer fluids 0.00018
    Salts 0.00009
    LPG, LNG 0.00018
    MEA and DEA (Amines) solutions 0.00035
    DEG and TEG (Glycols) solutions 0.00035
    Stable side products 0.00018
    Stable bottom products 0.00018
    Caustics 0.00035
    Vegetable Oils 0.00053

     


    REFINERY FLUIDS - Fouling Factors in [m2K/W]

    Crude - wet,
    (bearing salty water)
    Temperature 0 to 95 ° C 95 to 160 ° C 160 to 260 ° C > 95 ° C
    Velocity
    < 0.6 m/s 0.00053 0.00088 0.00105 0.00123
    0.6 m/s to 1.2 m/s 0.00035 0.00070 0.00088 0.00106
    > 1.2 m/s 0.00035 0.00070 0.00070 0.00088
    Crude - dry
    Temperature 0 to 95 ° C 95 to 160 ° C 160 to 260 ° C > 95 ° C
    Velocity
    < 0.6 m/s 0.00053 0.00053 0.00070 0.00088
    0.6 m/s to 1.2 m/s 0.00035 0.00035 0.00053 0.00070
    > 1.2 m/s 0.00035 0.00035 0.00035 0.00053
    Products Gasoline 0.00018
    Naphtha and Light Distillates 0.00018
    Kerosene 0.00018
    Light gas oil 0.00035
    Heavy gas oil 0.00053
    Heavy fuel oils 0.00088
    Asphalt and residuum 0.00176
    Cracking and
    Coking Units streams
    Overhead vapors 0.00035
    Light cycle oil 0.00035
    Heavy cycle oil 0.00053
    Light coker gas oil 0.00053
    Heavy coker gas oil 0.00070
    Bottom slurry (> 1.5 m/s) 0.00053
    Bottom liquid products 0.00035
    Catalytic Reforming,
    Hydrocracking,
    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS)
    Reformer charge 0.00035
    Reformer effluent 0.00018
    Hydrocracker charge and effluent 0.00035
    Recycle gas 0.00018
    HDS charge and effluent 0.00035
    Overhead vapors 0.00018
    Liquid product > 50 API 0.00018
    Liquid product 30 to 50 API 0.00035
    Light Ends
    processing streams
    Overhead vapors and gases 0.00018
    Liquid products 0.00018
    Absorption oils 0.00035
    Alkylation trace acid streams 0.00053
    Reboiler streams 0.00053
    Lube oil processing streams 0.00053
    Feed stock 0.00035
    Solvent feed mix 0.00035
    Solvent 0.00018
    Extract 0.00035
    Raffinate 0.00018
    Asphalt 0.00088
    Wax slurries 0.00053
    Refined lube oil 0.00018


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